This study inspects the expectations of Malaysian scholars on selected factors, identified in past investigation, that influence the excellent of institutions in their application for fee. Two hundred students remained randomly selected from numerous private institutions to respond to a survey which tested on such variables as moot programmer and staff, facilities, pricing, and raise. Data calm were analyzed by means of Factor Analysis and Contrast of Means. Based on the nasty score analysis, factors that meaningfully influenced the choice of an organization of higher education for fee are found to be academic integrity, excellence of teaching, duration of course, upcoming employability, educational fees, distant and local degrees offered, official reputation and track record, student testaments and opportunities of exposure to new communal environment. A few factors originate to be significant in a previous study had lost their rank and these are entry requirements, amenities and extra-curricular activities. It is strong that for branding strategies to work, an organization of higher education has to take into account prospects that matter most to students.

Table of Contents

Introduction. 3

Problem Statement. 4

Research Objectives. 5

Research Questions. 5

Literature Review.. 5

Introduction. 5

Review of Literature. 6

Proposal Theoretical / Conceptual Framework. 8

Research Methodology. 9

Analysis by research objective. 9

Demographic Analysis. 10

Discussions. 13

Framework for Student Success. 15

Results of the survey. 17

International comparisons. 27

Conclusions. 28

Increasing diversity. 28

Do differences matter?. 28

Limitations and some further questions. 29

Reference. 31

Appendix. 34


The aim of this paper is to identify and synthesize main streams of research on quality of student experience in advanced education, in order to propose a program for future research. More research into the excellence of student experience is required meanwhile the increasing liberalization of higher education has caused in changes in the way student knowledge experiences are supported. The call for more investigation into the quality of student experience is additional supported by an increasing focus in handling the quality of student experience as a modest advantage in the higher education market, and the balancing relationship that quality of experience has with excellence of service in influencing student consummation.

This has led to the outline of transnational education by PIHEs in the procedure of foreign grade programmers. These programmers proposal and option for students to spend part of their educations overseas. The development of the PIHEs in the 1990s was too due to the official move to meet the increasing demand for tertiary education finished the privatization of the education subdivision (Lee, 2003). The fast growth of private education has saw a surge in the number of PIHEs in the Malaysian educational scenery. Rendering to the Ministry of Higher Teaching, as of 2012, there are now 500 PIHEs out of a total of 616 advanced education institutions in the country. Most of these organizations are clustered in the major municipalities where the biggest market is originate.

Rendering to Chief (2011), there is a projected enrolment of 541,629 students in PIHEs out of whom 87,000 are distant students. In contrast, public institutions of higher knowledge such as universities, polytechnics and public colleges have a combined staffing of 503,535 students. In 2008, 84.8 per cent of the students in community institutions of higher knowledge were Bumiputras (Malays and other native groups), shadowed by 9.7 per cent Malaysian Chinese, 2.8 per cent Malaysian Indians and 2.7 per cent “another’s”. The PIHEs, recognized by Malaysians and a few by strangers, cater to those who have been kept available or opt out of public universities and colleges but who are ready to pay high tuition fees charged by these organizations. Understanding the prospects of students to fulfil their needs for higher teaching is vital for the continued growth and feasibility of PIHEs.

The forecasts of any PIHE will rest with its make image. One with a recognized brand will have a definite benefit over its competitors. Marking refers to a name, term, sign or sign that identifies and differentiates an organization. The difference can either be tangible or intangible or a mixture of both. But it takes additional than a catchy slogan or symbol to attitude out from the crowd. Tertiary teaching is arguably a high participation product (Kotler, 1976: 46). High involvement harvests are those that consumers need to income time to think over their purchases. This is since the products are expensive and customers are inclined to evaluate the welfares to justify their decision. In this setting proper branding of an organization to communicate the benefits it offers is significant in a highly competitive private education subdivision. PIHEs offer a range of educational facilities rather than physical products. Service marking has to focus on three areas, namely, external marking, internal branding, and customers’ insights of brands. External branding explains in what way organizations create brands internal branding emphases on employees and customers’ perceptions of makes refer to the value that customer’s home on the brands.

Pursuing educations in PIHEs is a costly promise and as such students and their relations will make sure that they obtain good price for their savings in higher education. With hundreds of organizations competing for students, the risks for PIHEs are high. An organization that does not fulfil the prospects of students will be quickly disallowed, and this is a key reason for scholar withdrawals after registering. This study so explores factors considered by Malaysian Chinese scholars in their PIHE selection or decision-making procedure as well as the media greatest dominant in providing relevant info on higher education opportunities.

In view of the research queries, existing studies related to the student knowledge in higher education was reviewed with the purpose of plotting current research contributions concerning the excellence of student experience. The extant works was systematically reviewed to reveal the degree of research in the field which is followed by deliberations on the limitations of existing research and chances for identifying the program for future research.

Problem Statement

The rank of education is collective because of cumulative weight to catch up by the developed domain regarding, for instance, global keenness. Most of the secondary school students are observing for more of the visual art education. Graphic art education is considered as second-class topic and not as important as Mathematics, Discipline and other subjects. Several parents do not inspire their children to select visual arts education topic. Students are not attention to study visual arts education since for them, visual arts education is nonentity more than drawing and coloring, boring, requires a high skill, needs a lot of money and take a long time to whole the work. Amongst parents also see the visual art education as not causal to the upcoming of their children.

Though, Malaysia has experienced a weakening in the number of foreign students registering in Malaysian. Also, there are neighboring republics such as Thailand and Singapore are violently indorsing their own HEI.

There are many academics revealed either on over-all student’s enrolment and inspects more on other countries distant student’s enrolment. For instance, they presented that their key finding is comparative examination toward Private against Public Higher Education Institution for over-all students. This study aims to deliver a valuable insight in the aspect of over-all students‟ enrolment in HEI.

Research Objectives

  • To examine the factors affecting foreign scholars‟ enrolment in higher education institutions.
  • To differentiate the factors influencing distant student’s enrolment founded on the brand equity of PuHEI then PHEI.
  • to classify problems that arise in the teaching of graphic art education

Research Questions

The research questions for this study are:

  • What is the effectiveness of by multimedia in education?
  • What is the different method in teaching visual education amongst students?
  • What is the difficulties encountered throughout education?
  • Explain Student experience in study.


Literature Review


This chapter discovers the drivers that lead to distant students‟ enrolment. This study originally describes the theory of planned behavior which has been rummage-sale to develop the constructs related to the causes of the foreign students‟ enrolment.

Review of Literature

Education is closely related with economic growth. Factually none of the rich industrialized countries were able to attain significant economic growth before reaching universal primary education. In less developed agrarian societies, the value of labor is determined by manpower that trusts on physical strength and long working times. Human capital philosophy, as developed by Schultz (1963), argues that teaching increases human productivity. Human reserve theory (including intellectual wealth, psychological capital, cultural wealth, and social capital) additional expands this framework into a wider and more complicated system. In Malaysia, education improvements have been implemented from time to period to cope with the developmental needs of the state and the rapidly increasing quantity of tertiary students.

Failure of public organizations to cope with the rising request for higher education has been a strong stimulus to the development of PIHEs in Malaysia. Intense competition for scholars in the private education sector has twisted branding and brand development into organization priorities. The branding of PIHEs is touching towards student-oriented prospects. In response to the development of student enrolment in degree sequences, almost all secluded colleges aspire to be upgraded to university-college rank by the Ministry of Higher Education. As rivalry among universities intensifies, a essential for thorough understanding of student prospects is crucial for all PIHEs. Thus, attention to official branding is gaining greater fame among university administrators. In order to live and to succeed, it is mandatory that managers understand how various student segments differ in their executive behavior.

In the area of advertising, Berry (2000) produced a service-branding model in an effort to cultivate service brand evenhandedness at the customer level. Service make equity refers to customers’ recognition that a exact brand is different and offers higher value than alternative brands in the market. In a commercial that offers services as intangible crops, awareness of the name of the company, information of its unique products, and direct individual experience will contribute to brand evenhandedness. Berry (2000) suggested development a service brand by launching managerial efforts to improve brand awareness and create brand senses for customers. A company’s presentation of a service make is assumed to be the primary source of brand designation awareness, whereas brand senses are derived from a customer’s direct interaction with the services associated with the brand. For facility providers, it is critical to comprehend which cues or attributes of the service offering are most appreciated in the decision-making process of current and possible customers.

Student decision-making procedure is a fundamental and integral share of theory and research on higher education. A student expressions the hard choice on which particular punishment of study and institution of higher knowledge to enroll after completing subordinate education. It is therefore critical for PIHEs to effect the student decision-making process. To do this efficiently relevant key attributes of the facility offerings that are highly appreciated by the students must be identified. Students have been originate to opt for PIHEs that match their assortment criteria academically, informally, and financially.

Plank and Chiagouris (1998: 23) stated that the choice of college for admission be contingent on five factors, namely, moot programmes offered, leadership opportunities in the school, perceived job prospects after graduation, monetary aid, and value for money. From the facility marketing point of view, consumers finished an interactive process will experience or obtain a bundle of benefits that are different since those of purchasing a physical creation (Hoffman and Bateson, 2002: 324). In a study by Chocolate (1991:32-33), 17 college image components were recognized as predictors of students’ assortment of college or university and four out of the 17 components, namely, excellence of education, recreational doings, educational facilities and faculty memberships, were found to be statistically significant.

In another study approved out at the University of North Alabama, 29 college copy components were identified and those that were found to be important included location, type of academic programmes, public in which college is located and overall excellence of education (Absher et al., 1993: 426-427). In a Malaysian study, available of the 20 characteristics of PIHEs which influenced the choices of students, four items were found to be important, namely, facilities, procedures and policies, entry supplies and extra curricula activities (Samsinar et al., 2003: 275-276). Packaging this bundle of physiognomies or benefits into the brand that represents a particular service is vital in instruction to make the service provider competitive. What energies into the bundle will depend on the prospects of the consumers?

Wen et al. (2004) found that Continental Chinese have usually relied on word of mouth communication from collection and family members for product info. Their study accords with the Malaysian Chinese confidence that verbal information is careful more credible than printed sources and also reduces the risk of losing face. Many young Malaysian are exposed to advertising counting the Internet which is a new source for product info. Although thriftiness is appreciated in Confucianism consumption culture as a symbol of modesty and humility, brand and status awareness have gradually emerged as pre-purchase evaluative principles among the young. Their individuality and confidence, coupled by the rise of individuality, has fueled their desire for belongings that express their tastes, and this too applies to higher education aspirations.

Proposal Theoretical / Conceptual Framework

The diagram displays the elements that affect the foreign student staffing. Figure shows the relationship among determinants toward the foreign student staffing. This study efforts to examine the determinants of the distant student enrolment which are social effect and student belief. This study defines social influence as the family and peer effect on the student decision making while student belief is student’s own perception and assessment regarding to the education scheme and also environment. In adding, in this study aims to study the moderation impact of make equity towards the foreign student’s enrolment. Brand equity container be described as brand reputation and worth which able influence group images.

Research Methodology

A quantitative study was led on Malaysian students form ten randomly designated PIHEs located in the Clang Valley area.1 The example comprises 20 defendants from each institution. A questionnaire covering three sections was used. The first section relates to the defendant’s demographic profile. The next unit that contains questions adapted from three bases namely Basher et al. (1993), Chocolate (1991) and Seminar et al.

(2003), emphases on tertiary education selection criteria founded on a five-point Likert scale with 1 representative “strongly disagree” and 5 as “powerfully agree”. The final unit focuses on media and other sources of info. Questions in this unit are based on a five-point scale ranging from “strongly disagree” to “powerfully agree”. A pilot study was led to measure the reliability of questions in the additional and third sections. The own Cronbach’s Alpha scores were 0.70 and 0.80. A notch of 0.70 and above implies that the queries are reliable in measuring the factors below study.

Data from the review were analyzed by means of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) form 17 software. Descriptive figures used in the analysis included frequency, nasty score and percentage. An assenting factor analysis and comparison of income and Chi-square analysis was approved out to inspect the goodness-of-fit of the dimension model and to establish the factors that influenced the choices of students on the institution of their excellent.

In order to make sense of the rank of the 39 papers identified for the systematic works review in this paper, both citation examination and authorship analysis were too conducted to identify possible important the whole thing and authors from among the39. Times cited in refereed periodical articles’ which indicates the importance of the study for apiece paper is presented in Table 2. Prior to the book of this paper, 35 of the 39 papers had at least one incidence of citation in a refereed periodical. The outstanding four were either not cited, or quoted only in conference minutes. In order to reveal the extent of investigation collaboration between authors, Table 2 also provides the writing analysis in terms of the number of playwrights involved in the study, including info on whether the authors were from the same organization and country. The table reveals that 10 of the 39 identifications were for research conducted by authors from dissimilar institutions, among which three were global collaborations. Of the 29 remaining papers, 11 were for investigation conducted by single authors within the setting of a specific institution or country.

Analysis by research objective


Demographic Analysis

The respondents remained Malaysian students of whom 50.5% were 18 to 19 years old and 35 % were 20 to 21 years old. Two-thirds of the students remained from the higher income collection with family monthly income be around RM, 6000 and above. The mainstream of the respondents were enrolled in Basis courses while the rest were pursuing experiences in the A-Level, diplomas and single degree courses (Table 1).

Table 1. Profile of Respondents

Age Frequency (N=200) Percentage
18 and 19 101 50.5
20 and 21 70 35.0
22 and 23 18 9.0
24 and above 11 5.5
Monthly Family Income (RM)
1001-2500 11 5.5
2501-4000 20 10.0
4001-6000 38 19.0
6001 or More 131 65.5
Enrolment by Academic Programme
Foundation 118 59.0
A-Level 12 6.0
Diploma 40 20.0
Bachelors degree 28 14.0
Others 2 1.0

PIHE Selection Criteria

A comparison of means was did to statistically analyze the responses from students to assess the order of importance of the standards in their decision to enroll in a PIHE. The issues are arranged on the Likert scale of 1 to 5. A tall mean score (> 4) indicates that the issue has a strong influence on student excellent (Table 2). Usually, factors such as moot integrity, length of existence and future employability, with nasty values of 4.55, 4.51 and 4.30, correspondingly, exert the strongest effect on the choice of institution. With a mean value of 3.9, site is seen as the least important issue by students. This seems to designate that students are prepared to pursue sequences of their choice regardless of the site of the PIHE.

Table 2. Factors that Influence the Choice of PIHEs among Malaysian Students
Number Variables Mean Value
1 Academic integrity 4.55
2 Length of existence 4.51
3 Future employability 4.30
4 Quality of teaching 4.28
5 Education fees 4.25
6 Duration of course 4.16
7 Facilities 4.12
8 Availability of preferred courses of study 4.10
9 Entry requirement 4.00
10 Location 3.90

Students made knowledgeable decisions on the choice of organizations according to a set of factors registered in Table 3. Based on Chi-square consequences, nine factors were originate to be significant at 0.1 sureness levels. These items are moot integrity foreign and local degrees offered, organization’s reputation and proven track best, future employability, quality education, tuition fees, period of the course of study, chances of exposure to new social environments, and concrete student testament which refers to recommendations made by current or senior students.

Characteristics of PIHEs

Chi-square Significance
Academic integrity/trust 1.968 0.045*
Foreign degree/qualification offered 1.833 0.043*
Local degree/ qualification offered 1.813 0.041*
Institution’s reputation and track record 1.802 0.040*
Concrete student testimony 1.801 0.039*
Future employability 1.765 0.038*
Quality education 1.743 0.036*
Education fees 1.728 0.033*
Duration of course 1.721 0.032*
Facilities 9.032 0.212
Availability of preferred course 9.136 0.223
Entry requirement 9.256 0.236
Location of institution 9.345 0.252
Library resources 9.498 0.263
Scholarship/financial aid 9.642 0.283
Institution’s size and layout 12.339 0.321
Popularity of institution 12.347 0.337
Student population 12.452 0.348
Extra-curricular activities 12.463 0.356
Opportunities of exposure to new social environments 12.588





Media Effectiveness and Brand Message

Based on the nasty score, the Internet (5.01) and journalists (4.91) are the two most effective sources of info for the students, followed by periodicals, brochures, open days and education fair (Table 4). The old-style electronic media (TV and Radio) and term of mouth communication lag behind the print media. Publicity materials such as posters and photos have the lowest mean notches (3.81 and 3.61).

Sources of Information

N = 200
Mean SD
Internet 5.01 0.96
Print Media
Newspapers 4.91 0.93
Magazines 4.62 0.81
Brochures 4.62 1.03
Open day 4.51 1.06
Education fair 4.31 1.03
Electronic media
TV 4.28 1.22
Radio 4.21 1.21
Word of mouth 4.11 1.22
Promotional materials
Posters 3.81 1.12
Photographs 3.61 1.01


The identification of the five investigation streams presented in the answers of this paper provide the basis for a synthesis of key subjects identified within each research watercourse. These discussions, along by the identification of the purposes and confines of existential research allow us to speech the existential issues concerning research on excellence of student experience in higher learning.


Writing Requirements: student interpretations

The research interviews with students revealed a number of different interpretations and understandings of what students thought that they were meant to be doing in their writing. Students described taking ‘ways of knowing’ (Baker et al., 1995) and of writing from one course into another only to find that their attempt to do this was unsuccessful and met with negative feedback. They were consciously aware of switching between diverse writing requirements and knew that their task was to unpack what kind of writing any particular assignment might require. This was at a more complex level than genre, such as the ‘essay’ or ‘report’, but lay more deeply at the level of writing particular knowledge in a specific academic setting. Students knew that variations of form existed, but admitted that their real writing difficulties lay in trying to gauge the deeper levels of variation in knowledge and how to set about inscription them. It was much more than by means of the correct terminology or just knowledge to do ‘academic writing’–as what we term the moot socialization model would suggest–and more about adapting preceding knowledge of writing practices, theoretical and other, to varied university locations:

The thing I’m finding most problematic in my first term here is moving from topic to subject and knowing how you’re destined to write in each one. I’m really aware of script for a particular tutor as well as for a particular topic. Everybody seems to want somewhat different. It’s very different to a levels where we used verbalized notes for essay script.

Such common descriptions in meetings with students did not appear to sustenance the notion of generic and movable writing skills across the college.

Students themselves often internalized the language of response. They knew that it was significant to present a quarrel and they knew that structure played an vital part, but had difficulties in sympathetic when they had achieved this successfully in a part of writing. Students would often describe how they had completed a part of work that they believed was well built and appropriate to the subject area, only to discover that they had conventional a very low grade and fairly undesirable feedback. They often felt unsure and confused around what they had done wrong. What appeared to be an appropriate piece of inscription in one field, or indeed for one specific tutor, was often found to be quite unsuitable for another. Although students often had guidelines, either from individual tutors or as departmental documents on paper writing, they found that these often did not assistance them very much with this level of script. They felt that such guidelines distributed with matters that they distinguished from A level or Access courses. The rules involved issues broadly defined as structure, such as persons concerned with the formal organization of a piece of writing (outline, main body, conclusion) or as argument, involving advice on the need of developing a position rather than if ‘just’ a description or narrative. Students could assimilate this over-all advice on writing ‘techniques’ and ‘skills’ but found it difficult to move from the over-all to using this advice in a particular text in a specific disciplinary context. In both universities, the mainstream of the documents offering rules of this nature that we analyzed took a rather practical approach to writing, concentrating on issues of superficial form: grammar, punctuation and meaning. They also dealt fully with referencing, lists and footnotes, and supplied warnings about lifting. They rarely dealt with the issues that scholars reported they had most effort grasping–for example, how to write specific, course-based knowledge for a precise tutor or field of study.

The conflicting information received from academic teaching run in different courses added to the confusion. For instance, in some areas students were exactly directed to outline what would follow in the main body of an old-style essay, whilst other tutors would observation, ‘I do not want to know what you are going to say’. Many dissimilar conventions were to be found about the use of the first person pronoun in student writing. Even inside the same courses, individual tutors had dissimilar opinions about when or if it was suitable to use this. Such conventions were often accessible as self-evidently the correct way in which belongings should be done.

Student perceptions were partial by their own experiences of writing in and outside higher education. An example of this was the A level applicant who came unstuck when she wrote a past essay drawing on just one textual source as she frequently and successfully had done in English. Similarly, additional entrant to the traditional college who had worked in industry for 5 years and was rummage-sale to extensive, succinct report script, had no idea how to go about writing a old-style essay text in politics, as part of a course in public management and organization.

Students took different lines to the course switching that they practiced. Some saw it as a nice of game, trying to work out the rules, not only for a arena of study, a particular course or specific assignment, but frequently for an separate tutor. They adopted writing plans that masked their own sentiments, in a sense mimicking some implicit or even clear convention. There were, for example, the first year history students who had erudite to hide what they thought behindhand ‘it can be said’ rather than by means of the first person in their writing, and had also erudite how to balance one recognized author in contradiction of another as a way to present their own individual viewpoint in their writing. On the other hand, a mature scholar writing social policy felt severely forced by his inability to bring his years of trade union know-how into his essay on present-day lack. He did not feel contented with the pragmatic approach of playing to the rubrics of the game, which seemed to need him to simply juxtapose data from different bases and to eschew personal knowledge.

Framework for Student Success

Figure 1 is the guiding outline for our analysis. Instead of the acquainted “pipeline” analogy depicted by a direct route to instructive attainment, a more accurate symbol is a wide path with twists, turns, detours, junctions, and occasional dead ends that many scholars may encounter during their educational career. As we will see, this figure is a more realistic depiction of contemporary postsecondary education.

The first unit of the path signifies students’ precollege experiences. We précis the effects of academic preparation in K–12 schools, domestic background, enrollment selections, and financial aid and assistance policies on numerous dimensions of student success. These and connected factors and conditions affect the chances that students will do what is essential to prepare for and succeed in college. In figure 1, arbitrating conditions are represented as changes that students must successfully navigate to last their education. They include remediation sequences that do not count toward advancement but which are necessary to acquire college-level moot skills, financial aid policies that ease or hinder their continued enrollment, and the essential to work many hours off campus which can forbid students from fully engaging in the college involvement. If students are not able to effectively find their way through these screens, they can be either temporarily or forever separated from the college experience.

The next part of the path—the school experience itself—includes two dominant features: students’ behaviors and official conditions. Student behaviors comprise such aspects as the time and effort students put hooked on their studies, interaction with ability, and peer involvement. Institutional conditions comprise resources, educational polices, agendas and practices, and structural topographies.

On student engagement because it signifies aspects of student behavior and institutional presentation that colleges and universities can do somewhat about, at least on the margins, while many other factors such as precollege features are typically beyond the direct control of the pupil or the college or university. Equally important, tall levels of student engagement are related with a wide range of educational practices and circumstances, including purposeful student-faculty interaction, active and collaborative learning, and official environments perceived by students as comprehensive and affirming and where expectations for presentation are clearly communicated and set at sensibly high levels. These and other student behaviors and official conditions discussed in more detail later are connected to student satisfaction, persistence, enlightening attainment and learning and development across a variety of dimensions.

Results of the survey

The detailed results of the question are set out in each of the three papers. The insinuations of our findings are debated within a set of Conversation Points at the end of apiece report. A copy of a piece of the Discussion Points can be originate in the Appendices to this Swift. The key answers are summarized bellowed/Global Student

Unlike the EU student example that either intended to energy back to their home republics or seek short-term employment in the UK, the data from Global students suggests that a mainstream intend to return to their homelands either right after completion of their initial HE sequence or after further higher study in the UK.

Seeking permanent placement in the UK does not seem to be a key importance for either group of students.

Over one-fifth of International scholars were not satisfied with the provision in academic writing and referencing provided by the school. Related to this, approximately semi of the International students and nearly a neighborhood of EU students indicated that they necessitate more support with their English language.


Part Time students

Employers support Part Time beginners by funding their studies, offering students education time and giving varied levels of work/study suppleness. Unsurprisingly, the choice about where to study is largely strong-minded by the student’s boss if they are in full time work.

Whilst a majority of PT students spoken satisfaction with the support providing by their colleges in a many areas, around one-fifth of the scholars felt that their course teachers did not always take into account the demands modelled by their jobs when allocating work or projects.

PT students are a particularly mixt group of students. Often seen as just a irregular of FT or widening participation students, the diverse countryside of their backgrounds, motivations besides funding sources is frequently ignored. Given that this group of students is probable to increase in number as a result of demographic alteration, we have included a suggested typology of PT students in the Appendix to our additional detailed survey report. This might act as a “Thought Starter” to school staff when they are designing and advertising future part time provision.


Full Time students

A key finding of our study is the fact that a high proportion of FT students reoccurrence to their original college for their HE educations. Whilst they might not do so immediately on conclusion of their L3 courses, they are likely to reflect their previous colleges as breadwinners of their future HE programmers. The factors that can discourage the students from studying FT are approximately financial in nature. High course fees and other related study costs are the strongest factors moving student choice to pursue Full Time HE.

More class contact times and more individual study support after tutors are the strongest factors that can help students to learn healthier. This is supplemented by the scholars themselves spending more private study time at the school. Amongst FT students, the place of the college is the strongest factor underpinning their high-quality of college, followed by the college existence able to offer their preferred HE programmer. The survey consequences suggest that, contrary to popular view, friends and family have little effect over a student’s choice of HE institution.

FT HE students do not similar to share libraries, moot and social spaces with FE students. At the same time as all three survey groups detained this view, it was sturdiest amongst this particular response group.

In broad terms, the knowledges of younger (18-24) and mature (25+) FT scholars are similar or comparable. This advises that the colleges are offering suitable levels of support to all age groups and are not as long as learning environments exclusively right to younger students.

First year FT scholars, despite having paid a higher fee than their peers in the Additional or Final years of programmers, are not additional likely to consider their courses poor value for cash. A set of Discussion Points about the findings from the FT survey is comprised.


College Successes

Within the three collections there was a general agreement over a number of points. Whether they were EU, Global or Home students, and irrespective of style of study or intended qualification, the majority of students careful that their college-based HE offered decent value for money:

Similar responses were conventional to questions concerning the scholars‟ overall experience of the HE.

And whether or not they would indorse their college to family or friends

Colleges can lawfully claim, therefore, that in difficult monetary times they offer value for money. The scholars that took part in our survey were usually of the view that their experience of college-based HE was Acceptable or Very good and most would indorse their college to their family before friends. Only 7.9% considered their knowledge to be Very Poor or Inacceptable.

Students were asked why they selected to study at a particular college. The diagram below is based on the Rank 1 assigned to the choices open to them by Full Time, Part Time, and International and EU students. Some of the survey choices were offered exclusively to certain collections, for instance, employer insistence was only comprised in the PT student survey and have deliberate here before was only included in FT survey. The European- ERASMUS conversation was only included in the European student survey.

Location was the sturdiest factor underpinning a student’s choice of college. This is shadowed by their preferred course being obtainable by the institution. Employer choice ranks high, though this was only indicated by PT scholars.

Figure.  Factors influencing student choice of a particular college

Students, chiefly Full Time students, were generally gratified with their mode of study. This proposes that most had taken a considered decision around the most appropriate route to the requirement of their choice, although that 25% of PT students would have preferred the chance to study on a fulltime basis.

Part Time and Full Time students remained asked to tell us what changes to their course delivery would help them to learn healthier. Again, a clear consensus emerged amid the two groups, as the Figures and 4 below exemplify:

What can help Part Time students learn better?

The above figures are based on the Rank 1 allocated by the FT and PT students

To the list of issues that can help them to learn better. It is distinguished that Part Time students rated „more time absent from work‟ as the key factor, signifying that it may be helpful for college staff to ensure that bosses are aware of the demand that an HE programmed will brand on their employees. A large amount of Students are in full time employment and them equilibrium their full time jobs with their PT studies. This choice was not included in the FT survey: though, nearly a third of Full Time students (30%) long-established that they work for over 16 hours per week. It is also notable that whilst both the groups rated „more class interaction hours‟ and „more individual study provision from tutors‟ highly, a larger proportion of FT students valued these as the most important factor, associated to the PT students.

We have noted in the distinct reports for each of these groups that a clear preference leftovers for increased access to a teacher and for additional private study time. As we will see advanced in this report, college students worth their teachers – they have little interest in more coldness learning or other self-study methods. It seems that students value contact with a „actual person‟ and with fellow learners rather than through connected learning. The link amid increasing fees and high expectations around interaction time was a strong one in all three reviews, with some student’s expression their concerns through their additional commentaries that a higher level of fee was not unavoidably being matched with more trained hours or tutorials.

This point is a stimulating one. Our survey results support a deduction that emerges from a number of other investigations, namely that students have an imperfect understanding of the changes to the way in which HE is now subsidized. Whilst it can be argued that it isn’t essential for undergraduates to have a detailed grip of the English HE funding system, abundant of the potential discontent is instinctive from an assumption on the student’s share that the entire tuition fee is absorbed towards teaching time. There is little credit of the fact that other components of the

HE offer have to be subsidized from the same fee revenue. Students value their educators. When Part Time and Full Time students were requested if they agreed or disagreed with the declarations “My teachers are supportive” and “My educators are up to date with their subjects” the next responses were received.

Figure 5.  My teachers are supportive

Both groups were requested if they agreed with the statement “My teachers are decent teachers” and “My teachers are excited about their subjects

My teachers are good teachers

All three groups remained keen to voice their provision for their teaching staff. A typical remark is: “I really enjoy studying at a close well-resourced site. Most of my teachers consume brilliant and dynamic teaching styles which save the lessons fresh and enjoyable!

These areas are features of HIM in FE which colleges must rightly celebrate. Students value the procedure of being taught. Previous educations by MEG have exemplified the fact that HE teaching staff see themselves chiefly as teachers, clearly moving from an inductive to a logical approach across the First year of scholar study. Most were aware that actuality an HE student carries with it the anticipation of independent query, as this comment illustrated:

“I feel that giving the scholar the knowledge to then go and develop their individual thinking is an essential part of teaching. Existence the facilitator in the gaining of information not the dictator of knowledge is key as transcription does not develop free thinkers – they won’t grow themselves or the field they work in.

International comparisons

A consideration when emerging the UES was to confirm the ability to use the data for benchmarking in contradiction of similar student gratification surveys conducted in other nationwide contexts. The “overall satisfaction” query on the National Survey of Student Appointment (NSSE), for example, is highly alike to the quality of the entire instructive knowledge item on the UES. Information on student contribution in programs and activities that organizations provide for their personal growth. It is administered extensively in the USA then Canada, with 371,284 scholars from 621 colleges and colleges completing.

Figure presents the proportion of surveyed students who rated their whole educational experience definitely. Data from the 2011 UES should be treated with carefulness, as this was a pilot administration in which only 24 colleges participated. The warnings noted in Section 4.3 concerning vicissitudes to the UES collection practice should also be considered in relative to this figure. If the organizations that participate in NSSE change from those that do not, the results will not essentially reflect an unbiased estimate of student consummation at the overall sector level. If, for instance, the NSSE is managed to students of “better” institutions, the consequences will be biased upward. So, as more years of UES data are gathered using a reliable data collection methodology, likening movements over time within sectors could be more valid than likening the two subdivisions directly.


This study found that Malaysian defendants were more attracted to local institutions that discuss foreign university rather than local university experiences. This is in line with the answers of Batra et al. (2000) which propose that consumers in developing republics showed positive attitudes and favorite for non-local brands. The mainstream of the students in PIHEs are those with SPM (O-level) experiences while 78 per cent of those in public colleges have passed the STPM (A-level) inspection (Samsinar et al., 2003). The present study shows that 65 per cent of the students in PIHEs come from higher revenue families compared with 46 per cent in the 2003 education.

Increasing diversity

Trends towards greater meeting in the character of higher education schemes in different countries have not, as yet, detached the considerable differences which exist in nationwide traditions and their implications for the student knowledge, either in the amount of time that scholars spend studying or in how that time is spent. Nor consume they removed differences in the consequences of study. However, what is also apparent is the snowballing diversity of the student experience, both in and between national borders. This report has labeled some of the differences to be originate in the student experience between the UK and approximately other European countries. It has also observed at some of the diversity to be originate in the student experience with in UK higher education.

Concerning the former, there is indication to support the view that UK students do certainly spend fewer hours each week on their studies (broadly clear) than do students in other European republics. At the same time, there is some indication that a higher proportion of UK students than away believe that they are doing more than their universities really require of them. There are not major changes between countries in how students spend this period although UK students seem to rely somewhat less on their teachers than is shared in other countries.

Do differences matter?

We have if some evidence that there is a relationship amid time spent on university studies and successful learning consequences from those studies, though the association is not a particularly strong one. There is, though, a much stronger relationship between times devoted to study and the benefits graduates observe from their higher education in terms of issues such as preparedness for work, career prospects and the person’s own personal growth.

There is also some indication from the recent set of reports for HEFCE on alumna employment across Europe that UK alumni feel less well-prepared than graduates from additional European countries for entry to work afterward they have left higher education. But many issues may be responsible for this – the distance of degree courses, the age of the graduates, the much developed incidence of work placements and residencies in continental Europe – and too much should not be credited to the relatively small differences between republics in hours devoted to study.

The student knowledge is not ‘just about’ study, especially inside the UK with its traditions of a residential experience and stress on breadth and personal development. The apparent impact of higher education on the personal growth of the individual is strongly emphasized by alumnae in all European countries for which we have information. But it is a particularly strong stress among UK graduates. And it is something which seems to be strongly connected to the hours devoted to study.

Yet, within the UK and away, there is growing diversity in the scholar experience of higher education. For many scholars in the UK, the student knowledge is now almost entirely about moot study. But these are often older students alive at home and with much life knowledge behind them and who may be looking for other belongings out of their higher education. The traditional housing experience of an English university education power be quite unsuited to the needs of such scholars. Difference is not necessarily shortfall and, as we have also pointed out, there are also substantial commonalities in the experiences of student’s crossways UK higher education’s progressively diversified landscape.

There are undoubted changes to be found in both the extent and the countryside of the engagement of students with their educations in higher education. These are changes between

Individuals, but also to approximately extent differences related to the subjects intentional and to the kinds of institutions attended. Differences in appointment will produce differences in experiences which in turn may crop differences in outcomes.

Limitations and some further questions

The data analyzed for this report have remained restricted mainly to European advanced education and, although broader knowledge’s have been drawn upon for the works review in section 1 and some references complete to data on Japanese students in section2, wider contrasts have not been attempted. One interesting enquiry, therefore, remains as to how far Anglo-Saxon civilizations of higher education, which have been widely spread around the world, remain broadly alike to each other and how far they have deviated from their origins, following broader global or regional trends. Responses to such a question would have a manner on whether the differences stated above between the UK and other European advanced education systems simply reproduce deep-rooted differences among Anglo-Saxon, Humboldt Ian and Napoleonic civilizations or whether they reflect modern circumstances and policies (e.g. on student fees) of different European state states. The forthcoming ‘EUROSTUDENT IV’ survey may help to reply this question.

The ESRC/TLRP SOMUL study mentioned to above point up a number of insinuations arising from the increasing variety of the student experience. We recurrence them here:

  • reputational differences amid universities may not always correspond to changes in ‘what is learned’;

The greater variety in the experience of higher education, both inside and between national borders, brings with it approximately benefits for the higher schooling policy maker: the benefits of contrast, of learning from diversity – both in what to evade as much as in what to emulate – and of refining our understanding of the contacts between, and the consequences of, dissimilar types of diversity in the experiences and results of higher education.


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Questionnaire for Experimental Group

Section A: Please answer the following question completely. ( / ) in the box / boxes or fill in the blank.

Respondent Demography

  1. Gender: Male Female
  2. Race: Malay Others
  3. Interested subject: ______________________________________


Section B: Content Analysis of Multimedia Courseware

Please respond to each statement on the scale provided.

1= strongly disagree         2=disagree         3=neutral         4= agree        5= strongly agree

No. Questions 1 2 3 4 5
1. The content was reliable
2 The content is structured  in a clear and understandable manner
3 The content is present in creative way and motivate students to explore
4 The presentation of information can captivate the

attention of students

5 Images uses are relevant to the information included in the text
6 The presentation of information can stimulate recall
7 The video enhances the presentation  of  information
8 The sound is an alternative means of  presenting information
9 The sound can enhances the presentation of information
10 Multimedia are suitable and usable.
11 Using multimedia increase my interest to learn visual arts education
12 I better understand the topic that are taught through multimedia courseware

Questionnaire for Control Group

Section A: Please answer the following question completely. ( / ) in the box / boxes or fill in the blank.

Respondent Demography

  1. Gender: Male Female
  2. Race: Malay Others
  3. Interested subject: ______________________________________

Section B: Content Analysis of Multimedia Courseware

Please respond to each statement on the scale provided.

1= strongly disagree         2=disagree         3=neutral         4= agree        5= strongly agree

No. Questions 1 2 3 4 5
1. The content was reliable
2 Teachers explain clearly and students can understand
3 The content is present in creative way and motivate students to explore
4 The presentation of information can captivate the

attention of students

5 Images uses are relevant to the information included in the text
6 The presentation of information can stimulate recall
7 Teaching method that using are suitable and usable.
8 Teaching method increase my interest to learn visual arts education
8 I better understand the topic that are taught through teaching method



Questionnaire for Interview Session (For Students)

The appropriate method for teaching visual art education.

  1. Are you interested in education subjects? Give your reason.
  1. Do you prefer to learn visual art education using traditional method or multimedia?
  1. Which method will increase your motivation to learn education?
  1. What do you think of using of multimedia in teaching visual arts education?

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