Open Shortest Path First and Routing Information Protocol (RIP).

Question No 1:  Open Shortest Path First and Routing Information Protocol (RIP).

Ans: Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is a routing decorum aimed at Internet Protocol (IP) networks. It uses a link state routing (LSR) procedure and cascades into the group of interior gateway protocols (IGPs), operating with a single Autonomous System (AS).

OSPF is feasibly most widely used IGP in bulky enterprise networks. Intermediate System to Intermediate System (IS-IS), another link-state dynamic routing protocol, is further common in large amenity provider networks.

The Routing Information Protocol (RIP) is one of the primogenital distance-vector routing protocols that employ the hop count as a routing metric. RIP protect the routing loops by implementing limits on the number of hops allowed in a path source to destination. The maximum range of hops for RIP is 15, which bounds the size of networks supported by RIP.

RIP implements the split horizon, route poisoning and hold down mechanisms to prevent incorrect routing information from being propagated.

Advantage and disadvantage of OSPF:

Advantages Disadvantages
        i.            it is processor intensive protocol.

ii.            it divides routers into different areas, area division is useful for troubleshooting.

    iii.            it is not supported load balancing of transmition medium(link).

Advantage and disadvantage of RIP:

Advantages Disadvantages
        i.            Easy to understand and configure.

ii.            Sure to be supported by all Routers.

    iii.            Slow coverage in larger networks.

iv.            Supports only equal-cost load balancing Pinhole crowding can be a delinquent.

Difference B/w OSPF and RIP.

Routing Information Protocol Open Shortest Path First
        i.            It is distance vector protocol.

ii.            The basic focus in RIP is hop count.

iii.            In RIP protocol networks are not divided.

It is link state protocol.

The metrics used in OSPF are bandwidth and delay.

In OSPF, routing is carried out in autonomous system.

 

Question No 2: Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) and Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP).

Ans: Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is a uniform exterior gateway protocol designed to exchange routing and reachability information among Autonomous Systems (AS) on the Internet. The Border Gateway Protocol makes routing results based on paths, network policies, or rule-sets arranged by a network administrator and is involved in making core routing decisions. BGP worke extremely well and continues to be protocol that makes the Internet work.

Exterior Gateway Protocol is a general term for a routing protocol that is used to exchange routing information between two hosts in a network of independent systems. An EGP is naturally used between hosts on Internet to share routing table information. BGP is an example of an EGP.

 

 

Advantage and disadvantage of BGP.

           

Advantages Disadvantages
        i.            Fast convergence and fault tolerance.

ii.            Enhanced load balancing capabilities.

BGP is not used on interior corporate network.

BGP is more often used when you are interrelating props.

Advantage and disadvantage of EGP:

Advantages Disadvantages
        i.            Fast convergence and fault tolerance.

ii.            Enhanced load balancing capabilities.

BGP is not used on interior corporate network.

BGP is more often used when you are interrelating props.

Difference between EGP and BGP.

EGP BGP
        i.            EGP transport was such that a complete EGP announcement of routes was contained in an IP datagram.

ii.            BGP run within a network as well as between peer networks.

 

BGP also conveys around explicit policy information for each of the

routes is announced.

 

EGP was an routing domain edge

Protocol and a network operator loss whatever policy information that

he might have gleaned.

 

Question No 3: Copper Cabling vs Optical Cabling.

Ans: Copper Cabling is if we use copper cables in our network or wiring. Copper is a metal conductor. The proper application of data cabling and wiring is imperative for successful business.

The second type of network data cabling system is Fiber Optic Cabling. Fiber Optic Cabling features a shrill glass core that transmits laser light pulses. Fiber optic data cabling allows communication signals to be transmitted much faster, at a higher bandwidth and over much greater distances than copper data cabling systems. Because light is transmitted at a much higher frequency, fiber optic data cabling offers greater signal capacity.

Advantage and disadvantage of Copper cabling.

 

Advantages Disadvantages
        i.            Copper wires can handle a wider load of electrical power.

ii.            Copper has a high ductility, allowing wires thinner than human hair strands.

iii.            Malleability allows it to be bent into nearly any form without the threat of breaking.

Copper wires are also resistant to corrosion.

Fiber optic cable has a lower shock hazard than copper wire.

Copper wire is susceptible to electromagnetic interference, potentially leading to some devices working improperly.

 

Advantage and disadvantage of Fiber cabling.

Advantages Disadvantages
        i.            Fiber optic cables have a much more bandwidth than metal cables.

ii.            Optical fibers are difficult to tap.

iii.            The raw materials for glass are plentiful, unlike copper.

Fibers can be broken or have transmission loses when wrapped around curves of only a few centimeters radius.

Transmission on optical fiber requires repeating at distance intervals.

Optical fibers require more protection around the cable compared to copper

 

 

Difference between Fiber cabling and Copper Cabling.

Fiber Cabling Copper Cabling
        i.            Fiber cable use light beam to transmit data.

ii.            Fiber optic cable is much less susceptible to noise and electromagnetic interference.

iii.            Fiber optic cable is faster is because of the extremely high frequency ranges it is able to carry Signals.

Copper wire transmits data by electrical impulses.

Copper cables are more susceptible to noise and electromagnetic interference.

Whereas signal strength diminishes at high frequencies with copper wire.

Question No 4: Static IP addressing and Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol.

Ans: A static IP address is an address is permanently allocated to you by your ISP and does not change even if your computer reboots. A static IP address is normally assigned to a server hosting websites and providing mails database and FTP services. A static IP address is also assigned to a commercial appointed line or public society requiring same IP address each and every time.

The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is a standardized network protocol cast-off Internet Protocol (IP) networks . The DHCP is controlled by a DHCP server that animatedly distributes the network configuration parameters such as IP addresses for interfaces and services. A router can be enabled to act as a DHCP server.

Advantage and disadvantage of Static IP Addressing

Advantages Disadvantages
        i.            Networking does not depend on other devices.

ii.            Easy to assign DNS entries appropriate for a server or for remote access.

iii.            Static IP addresses are simpler to allocate and maintain.

A mistake might be made in configuring it possibly causing a clash with other devices.

Each address if once assigned is busy by a single computer even when that computer is not in using.

Easier to trail through the Internet.

 

 

 

 

Advantage and disadvantage of Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol.

Advantages Disadvantages
        i.            All t IP configuration’s information gets automatically configured for your client system by the DHCP server.

ii.            Using DHCP reduces the labor involved in managing the network.

A rogue server isn’t under control of the network staff, and can offer IP addresses to users connecting to the network.

If a single DHCP server is placed it forms a single critical junction.

Difference between Static IP addressing and Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol.

Static IP Address Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
        i.            a static IP address, the address does not change.

ii.            Computer doesn’t support DHCP.

iii.            Support to fixed name and address because you run a web server

Dynamic IP addresses, is assigned by the network and change over time.

Using DHCP makes it much easier to configure your system.

DHCP can account for network addressing vagaries automatically.

Question No 5: Domain Naming System (DNS) and Windows Internet Naming System (WINS).

The Domain Name System (DNS) is the method that internet domain names are positioned and translated into internet protocol (IP) addresses. The domain name system plots the name, people use to trace a website to the IP address that a computer uses to locate a website.

Web browsing and most other internet activity depend on DNS to rapidly provide the information necessary to connect users to remote hosts.

Windows Internet Name Service (WINS) is Microsoft’s enactment of NetBIOS Name Service (NBNS), a name server and service for NetBIOS mainframe names. Efficiently, WINS is to NetBIOS names what DNS is to domain names a vital charting of host names to network addresses.

Advantage and disadvantage of Domain Naming System (DNS).

Advantages Disadvantages
        i.            Sends messages to the users with zero downtime.

ii.            Technology enables requests are answered to the neighboring node in the case of maintenance or downtime.

iii.            Automatic rectifications of typos.

A change from the ordinary generally legacy DNS solutions are Unix based.

Hierarchical and centralized which breaks down the main objective of Internet.

Breakdown of DNS would crash the world wide web though there are many root servers and backup servers targeting.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Advantage and disadvantage of Windows Internet Name Service.

Advantages Disadvantages
        i.            The WINS Manager provides backup utensils to back up and restore the WINS database.

ii.

 

Question No 6: Networking devices: Switch and Hub.

A Hub is a networking device that allows one to connect multiple PCs to a single network. Hubs may be based on Ethernet, Firewire, or USB connections. A network hub is used for a private network one that does not have any connections to sources other than local computers.

A Network Switch also use to connect computers to each other, like a hub. The way it handles packets of data, differs from Hub. When a switch receives a packet of data, it determines which computer or device the packet is for, and sends it to that computer only.

Advantage and disadvantage of Hub.

Advantages Disadvantages
        i.            Network hubs share all their bandwidth to every connected device.

ii.            A Hub is used for internal connectivity between systems.

Network hubs only communicate in half-duplex mode.

Hubs are can’t differentiate between the devices on the network.

Hubs are unable to support large networks.

Advantage and disadvantage of Switch.

Advantages Disadvantages
        i.            Switch increase available bandwidth for network.

ii.            Switches decrease the workload on individual computers.

iii.            Switches connected directly to workstations.

Not so good like a router in limiting Broadcast.

Handling Multicast packets needs rather a bit of configuration and proper designing.

 

Difference between Hub and Switch.

Hub Switch
        i.            Hubs are classified as Layer 1 devices each OSI model.

ii.            Used to connect a network of personal computers together.

iii.            Hubs always perform frame flooding. Frame flooding may be unicast or broadcast.

Network switches work at Layer 2 of the OSI model.

Allow to connect several device and port can be manage.

Create hierarchy First broadcast then unicast & multicast as needed.

Question No 7: Layer 2 and Layer 3 Switches.

Layer 2 switches themselves act as IP end nodes for Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) management and Web based management. Such management functionality involves the presence of an IP stack on router along with User Datagram Protocol (UDP). Switching operates at layer 2 of the OSI model, where packets are sent to a specific switch port by the destination MAC addresses.

A Layer 3 switch is a particular hardware device used in network steering. Layer 3 switches technically have a lot in common with outmoded routers, and not just in physical advent. The applications of Layer 3 switches are restricted to intranet environments with a adequately large scale of device subnets and traffic.

Advantage and disadvantage of Layer 2 switches.

Advantages Disadvantages
        i.            There is a transparent interface no router hardware investment required for bandwidth upgrades

ii.            Low latency switched as opposed to routed.

Extra administrative upstairs of IP allocations due to flat subnet across multiple sites.

No visibility from the provider therefore monitoring services can be difficult.

 

Advantage and disadvantage of Layer 3 switches.

Advantages Disadvantages
        i.            IP/VPNs are extremely scalable for fast deployment.

ii.            A shorter hop count between two local sites is more efficient than – ‘tormbone’ back into a central point.

iii.            To implement a blanket ‘class of service’ prioritization based on traffic type make it simple across multi-site networks.

 

The central infrastructure becomes expensive when routing links over 100 Mbps.

Increase the costs due to requiring customer router hardware.

Alterations to IP addressing would have to be submitted to the carrier.

Difference between layer-2 and layer-3 switch.

layer-3 switch layer-2 switch
        i.            A Layer 3 switch is able to do everything a Layer 2 switch can and plus a lot more.

ii.            Layer-3 switch also do dynamic routing.

The network switch plays an essential role in most modern Ethernet local area networks (LANs)

Layer-2 switch can only do static routing.

 

Question No 8: Bridge and Router.

A Bridge is a artefact that connects a local area network (LAN) to another local area network that uses the same protocol. You can envisage a bridge as being a device that decides whether a message from you to someone else is going to the local area network in your building or to someone on the local area network in the building across the network area.

A Router is a device or a software in a computer that determines the next network point to which a packet should be forwarded toward its destination. The router is connected to at least two networks and resolves which way to send each information packet based on its current considerate of the state of the networks it is connected to. A router is located at any gateway including each point-of-presence on the Internet. A router is often included as part of a network switch.

 

Advantages Disadvantages
        i.            Bridges can range a network by acting as a repeater.

ii.            There is a very minimal amount of materials need to construct a suspension bridge.

iii.            Router devices are used to connect the LAN and WAN links

The extra processing makes them slower than repeaters.

Bridges are more expensive than router.

Bridges forward broadcast traffic.

Advantage and disadvantage of Bridge.

Advantage and disadvantage of Router.

Advantages Disadvantages
        i.            They do not forward broadcasts by default, it save bandwidth of network.

ii.            Router uses NAT that can be IP Address because each device need to go on internet.

iii.            They can filter the network based on layer 3 information “IP address”.

Routers work only with routable network protocols.

Routers are more expensive than bridges.

Routers are slower than bridges.

Difference between Router and Bridge.

Router Bridge
        i.            It uses software configured network address to determine the address.

ii.            The router use routing table to route the data source to destination.

iii.            Router are used to connect the LAN and WAN links.

It determines the destination address with the help of MAC address of the device.

Bridge devices are also used to connect LAN links.

With the help of MAC addresses of the devices connected in the network decide to send a massage.

 

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