Discuss musical characteristics of the Renaissance Era. Note the approximate dates of the era, as described by our text. Name three composers.

  1. Discuss musical characteristics of the Renaissance Era. Note the approximate dates of the era, as described by our text. Name three composers. Choose one composition and offer a brief description of it. (approx. 200 words, 10 points)

The Renaissance Period remained a vibrant time when knowledge then well arts flourished. Artists similar Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, Botticelli, Raphael, and then Titian were painting some of humanity’s greatest awe-inspiring works of art, conflicts like the War of Roses were fought amid clashing dynasties in their difficult quests to rule, and great changes were complete in the church throughout the Protestant Reformation. Generally classified as captivating place between 1400 and 1600, these two-hundred years spot an incredible transformation and progression in many things including music notation and composition. If it be situated for these great Renaissance creators, whose ground-shaking, mold-breaking musical thoughts opened a flood gate of musical inquisitiveness, the world of classical music we know nowadays could be radically different.

  • ORLANDO DE LASSUS (1530-1594)
  • GIOVANNI GABRIELI (1553-1612)



By over hundreds of available works, Italian composer, Palestrina was the most famous illustrative of the Roman School of musical composition, and importantly influenced the growth of music in the Roman Catholic Church. Since its voicing is extremely well balanced and attractively harmonized, Palestrina’s polyphonic music is smooth, pure, and see-through in sound.


  1. Discuss musical characteristics of the Baroque Era. (Include types of works composed and developed.) Note the approximate dates of the era, as described by our text. Name three composers. Choose one composition and offer a brief description of it. (approx. 200 words, 10 points)

The music of the Baroque Period is smooth more popular today than it remained four hundred years ago. Thanks to the prompt access to a nearly infinite set of music from all over the world, the baroque’s unique musical styles, polyphonic feels, and forms enchant and enjoyment millions of listeners each year. After Bach to Sammartini, each composer on this list importantly influenced the shape and course of traditional music, and though I would love to comprise the many other Baroque Period composers since them, too, had a great influence on the future and development of music




Domenico Scarlatti, son of Alessandro Scarlatti (additional well-known ornate composer), wrote 555 known harpsichord works, of which, over half was written in the previous six years of his life. Scarlatti made usage of Italian, Portuguese, and Spanish ball rhythms throughout numerous of his works.
Popular Works: Essercizi apiece Gravicembalo.


  1. Discuss musical characteristics of the Classical Era. (Include types of works composed and developed.) Note the approximate dates of the era, as described by our text. Name three composers. Choose one composition and offer a brief description of it. (approx. 200 words, 10 points)

The1810s, newer composers such as Franz Schubert then Franz Berwald began to take the hint that Beethoven remained on the right track. Trendy 1824, Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony, additional than an hour in length, developed the new model of pardon a symphony could be, embracing an long-drawn-out orchestra, a chorus, four spoken soloists, and a vision of a novel world.

Throughout the Classical era, composers instigated to exert more influence over presentations of their music. Haydn optional at the start of the published notch of his “Oxford” Symphony that if the effort were given even one rehearsal, it would be better served than if it were read cold at the concert. No composer had complete such a specification before. Slowly, expression marks and stated tempos in both written and published scores produced more prominent. Beethoven instigated employing metronome markings to set the beats of his music. Drumming and certain wind parts, previously designated sketchily if present at all, currently were written out. The clarinet, the bassoon, and finally the trombone emerged as significant instruments during the dated.

J.C. Bach The symphony, the cord quartet, and the solo concerto came to full adulthood, while the multiple-instrument works of the Baroque and the initial Classical periods declined in rank. J.S. Bach had arranged his keyboard works from violin works, and Vivaldi never inscribed any keyboard concertos at all. In judgement, by 1765, Bach’s sons Carl Phillip Emanuel then Johann Christian (right) had apiece already written lots of them. The pianoforte (or piano) was conceived by Bartolomeo Cristofori in 1729, was sophisticated, and became readily obtainable by about 1770. Soon the harpsichord would seem an old-fashioned relic.


  1. Discuss musical characteristics of the Romantic Era. (Include types of works composed and developed.) Note the approximate dates of the era, as described by our text. Name three composers. Choose one composition and offer a brief description of it. (approx. 200 words, 10 points)

The Romantic period instigated with the second neighborhood of the nineteenth century. It must be noted, however, that through the history of music there has been a tautness between the Classical and Romantic opinions of life and art. Objectivity against subjectivity, form versus liberty, and individuality versus universality are subjects that composers and other artists have challenged in every age. Romantic tendencies remained evident in the music of all three of the distinguished Viennese classical composers (chiefly Mozart and Beethoven), and by the finish of Beethoven’s career, the romantic soul was firmly entrenched in Europe, residual the dominant force in music until the start of the twentieth century.


There are some important Romantic characteristics that must be noted to begin this discussion. Classicism and idealization represent two opposing opinions of life and art. While classicism is objective, romanticism is subjective. Switch of harmonic tension, balance amid dissonance and consonance, and the careful and whole exploitation of thematic growth give Classical music a definite and separate formal structure. Equally, the Romantic spirit requires the loosening of official constraints and the uninhibited look of the individual composer’s ideas and feelings.

Romantic Composers and Style

  • Gioacchino Rossini (1792-1868),
  • Franz Schubert (1797-1828)
  • Felix Mendelssohn (1809-1847)

Felix Mendelssohn (1809-1847)

Felix Mendelssohn (1809-1847) inscribed three oratorios: St. Paul (1837), Elijah (1846), and Christos (incomplete at the time of his demise). In addition, he wrote some vocal lieder, motets, and psalm settings. His fame as a choral creator is based primarily on his oratorios, of which Elijah is the most often performed. Mendelssohn’s Lobegesang (Hymn of Admiration) is a choral instrumental piece including chorus, mood, and two soprano soloists in the last then longest movement.


  1. Discuss how music of the Twentieth century varies, noting several types of works and their characteristics. Name three composers. Choose one composition and offer a brief description of it. (approx. 200 words, 10 points)

The history and government of the 20th Century provided stimulus for the diverse range of musical styles industrialized between 1900 and 1999, pioneered by creators ranging from Elgar and Britten, to Stravinsky, Gershwin, and then John Williams. Advancing skill enabled the recording of traditional music and jazz, which in turn lead to the increase of globe-straddling artists similar Pavarotti and Callas.



He was a statistician, music theorist, teacher and composer who was a prominent follower of serialism and electronic music. Instinctive in Philadelphia, Babbitt first deliberate music in New York City, where he was bare to and inspired by the Instant Viennese School and Arnold Schoenberg’s 12-tone technique. He ongoing composing music in the 1930s and sustained to produce melody until 2006.




  1. Explain the characteristics of an opera. Choose one composer and his/her opera (you discovered in our text), and briefly describe it. (approx. 150 words, 5 points)

At the start of the 20th century, when modernism instigated to undermine the basic syntax of music, some of the principles that reinforced the workings of opera inevitably came below attack, too. Though some composers sustained to write operas in which the interdependent relationship between the music, the words and the play they conveyed was much the same as it had remained for the previous 300 years, others took the chance to reconsider basic molds about dramatic structure, and the role of music within it.

  • Hans Werner Henze (born Germany, 1926)
  • Philip Glass (born US, 1937)
  • Philip Glass (born US, 1937)

Hans Werner Henze (born Germany, 1926)

With a career in opera widening back 60 years, and a list of traitors including WH Auden and Edward Bond, Henze is modern opera’s great survivor, following his own creative path irrespective of musical fashion.


  1. Explain the characteristics of a symphony. Choose one composer and his symphony (you discovered in our text) and briefly describe it. (approx. 150 words, 5 points). Solaris —C” ,

In the 18th century, the symphony remained intensively developed, as Grove intelligences. For instance, the List of 18th Century Symphonies tilts more than 13,000 of them!  At that time, every Law court had its group of symphonies.  Such groups were found all across Europe, after Finland to Sicily, to Kiev, and smooth in Salem, North Carolina, in the United Conditions.  In this repetition, the Hapsburg monarchy was leading, shadowed by Germany, Italy, France then England, but too the Netherlands, Scandinavia, Spain, Poland then Russia were lively collectors.  A second significant aspect is — as Grove reports — the continuity of the growth of the symphony after the late 17th century on up to the stable classical style and its arrangement, at the finish of the 18th century.   The public charm of the symphony might also have lent it its position due to the fact that it was not reliant on on the skills of a few solo players.  Due to this, it made its method into the sets of the publishers, very soon, and was powerfully represented in these, yet it was also deliberated by musical theorists such as Scheibe, Repel, Burney, Schulz, Koch, in addition others.

Jommelli, Niccolo, instinctive on September 10, 1714 in Aversa, died happening August 25, 1774 in Naples. This Italian composer frolicked an important role in the improvement of 18th-century Italian opera that was conquered by singers.  His style combined German difficulty with French decorative rudiments and Italian Brio, which made a countless dramatic effect.  According to Copse, with him originated, at smallest in part, the Crescendo-Decrescendo that was advanced known as Mannheimer Rakete.


  1. Select a piece of American music (you discovered in our text) and briefly describe it. (approx. 150 words, 5 points).

American melody has a 300+ year history.  In the initial days it was little different from English music.  You had ecclesiastical hymns, arts songs, contributory music, etc.  Some was high excellence especially that from settler groups like the Moravians who established in Pennsylvania and brought a high degree of melodic culture. 

Ballet Technique George Antheil: This is a crushed breaking work by George Antheil, a innate of New Jersey. This video clip is especially significant because it was not until the 1990s that this video and the score by Antheil remained finally joined together (they were envisioned to be together from the onset). Leger remained the filmmaker. The unique orchestration called for 16 player keyboards (pianolas) in four parts, 2 even pianos, 3 xylophones, 7 electronic bells, 3 plane propellers, siren, 4 deep-toned drums, and 1 tam-tam. As it twisted out, there was no way to save so many pianolas coordinated, so early performances rummage-sale a re-orchestration with 1 pianola in addition 10 pianos.


  1. Select a historical time period you enjoyed reviewing and discovering, and explain it… what was going in society. History, art, religion, music, etc. at that time. (approx. 150 words, 5 points).

Named after the general ornate architectural chic of the time, the Baroque retro (ca.1600 to 1750) saw composers start to rebel against the styles that were predominant during the High Renaissance. This was a period when the many realms of Europe vied in outdoing each other in arrogance, pomp and pageantry. Many monarchs working composers at their courts, where they remained little more than servants predictable to churn out music for any wanted occasions. The greatest creator of the retro, Johann Sebastian Bach, was such a domestic. Yet the finest composers of the time were talented to break new musical crushed, and in so doing succeeded in making an entirely novel style of music.

It was during the initial part of the seventeenth century that the type of opera was first shaped by a cluster of composers in Florence, Italy, and the initial operatic masterpieces were composed by Claudio Monteverdi. The contributory concerto became a main of the Baroque era, and found its sturdiest exponent in the everything of the Venetian creator Antonio Vivaldi. Harpsichord music attained new heights, due to the works of such controllers as Domenico Scarlatti and others. Dances developed formalized into instrumental sets and were composed by virtually all creators of the era. But vocal and choral music still ruled supreme during this age, and culminated in the masques and oratorios of German-born creator George Frideric Handel.


  1. Select one composer (or work) you especially enjoyed discovering by taking this course. Describe his/her life, biography, and explain one composition. (approx. 100 words, 5 points of extra credit)

Martini, [Padre] Giovanni Battista, remained born on April 24, 1706 in Bologna in addition died there on August 3, 1784.  This Italian creator and music teacher, on the time of his death, was described as ‘Dio della musical de’ nostril tempi’.  He was one of the greatest famous statistics of music in the 18th century.   He received his firstly musical instruction from his father, a fiddler and cellist, and subsequently combined the Order of the Franciscans, was intended as priest and mainly functioned in Bologna.   He was mainly celebrated as a learned contrapuntist who developed a member of the Accademia dell’ Istituto delle Scienze di Bologna in 1758, on the age of 52.  Of the German-speaking composers that conventional instruction from him, J.C. Bach and Mozart are surely the most well-known.  Though not much biographical detail is recognized about Padre Martini, his lively life and contribution to music developed a vital part of music past.  He was known as an untiring worker, with a wide range of welfares and full of energy, yet, at the similar time, also as actual friendly.

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